The W3SVC IIS logs revealed the following error – the line has been shortened for clarity
POST /autodiscover/autodiscover.svc/WSSecurity & ASAutoDiscover/CrossForest/EmailDomain//15.01.0225.018 - 500 0 0 124
The Exchange 2013 server was unable to resolve mail.domain.com and autodiscover.domain.com to itself, as internal DNS had not been updated yet. This was resolved by adding static entries for these names into the HOSTS file.
After re-testing, the issue was found to have been resolved.